ZESN Position Paper on Delimitation ahead of 2023

Boundary delimitation refers to the process of drawing electoral district boundaries. It is the process of demarcating electoral boundaries (constituencies, wards, polling districts) for the purposes of conducting elections. In Zimbabwe, delimitation is the process of dividing the country into constituencies and wards for the purposes of elections of persons to constituency seats in the National Assembly and of councilors to local authorities…more


The polling process continues to be a key area in the electoral cycle which is negatively affected by several disputes and election related conflict. The polling process herein refers to election procedures that occur in and around a polling station including opening, voting, counting and results transmission procedures. Most election petitions which were filed before the electoral courts in the past pre-dominantly pointed out suspected electoral fraud, maladministration or malpractices related to the polling process….more

ZESN Fact sheet on Media’s role in elections

Section 61(2) of Zimbabwe’s 2013 Constitution guarantees the freedom of the media. Media freedom is closely connected to the right to access information enshrined in Section 62 of the Constitution. In its role as the fourth estate, the media plays an important role in keeping the public informed. A more informed public is able to make better decisions in things that relate to day-to-day events and ultimately, the quality of life. The media’s informative role is even more important during the electoral cycle….more

ZESN Fact Sheet on Election Administration

The administration of elections involves many processes such as voter registration, voting procedures, ballot counting and verifying the results. Administration failures result in electoral mismanagement leading to loss of confidence, credibility and trust in elections. More often, Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs) are assisted by election observers to identify and address administrative weaknesses in the electoral process… more


This Factsheet is based on a summary of concerns and recommendations by several International, regional and local election observation missions who observed the 2018 Harmonised elections in Zimbabwe. The electoral concerns and recommendations are captured under the theme ‘Electoral Framework’ in the 2018 Compendium of Election Observers Recommendations and the ZESN 2018 Harmonised Elections Report. This is a general comment on ZEC’s mandate of voter’ registration under section 239 of the 2013 Constitution of Zimbabwe….more

ZESN Fact sheet on Legal Framework

In the past many complaints have been made about the way in which elections have been conducted and there has been increasing pressure to implement significant reforms to the electoral framework to ensure the electoral processes are not manipulated and abused and to ensure that there are genuinely free and fair elections. Proposed reforms include measures:

  • to enhance the independence and impartiality of the electoral management body;
  • to facilitate unimpeded peaceful political campaigning in the lead up to elections…. more

ZESN Fact sheet on Delimitation of Electoral Boundaries


Delimitation is the process of dividing constituencies for the purposes of elections. It divides the country into constituencies and wards for the purposes of elections of persons to constituency seats in the National Assembly and of councilors to local authorities. It is important to note that delimitation is a fundamental process of the Electoral Cycle. The importance of demarcating boundaries is important in ensuring fair representation of the electorate. Delimitation is a technical process hence it is important that it is understood by all stakeholders….more

ZESN Fact sheet on Electoral Justice

Electoral justice, involves the means and mechanisms available in a specific country for ensuring that each action, procedure and decision related to the electoral process complies with the legal framework; protecting or restoring electoral rights; and giving people who believe their electoral rights have been violated the ability to file a challenge, have their case heard and receive a ruling…more

ZESN Fact sheet on Accountability of Security Forces, Traditional Leaders, and Civil Servants in Electoral Processes

Background Information

Elections should be conducted in a transparent manner that yields credible and indisputable results. However, election administration in Zimbabwe has in practice been marred by malfeasance from political incumbents and state institutions.  Among the most contentious issues are the roles played by three critical state/national institutions: traditional leadership, the security sector and the civil service which have an obligation to be accountable to the Constitution which forbids them from being aligned to any political party…more

ZESN Factsheet on Fundamental Freedoms

The term fundamental rights refers to basic human entitlements or rights aimed at protecting and promoting specific interests of people. These rights are often times identified and entrenched in a country’s Constitution. in Zimbabwe, Chapter 4 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act, 2013 (‘the Constitution’) contains the Declaration of Rights which sets out the various fundamental rights recognised in Zimbabwe…more